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Errors from a simple hello program

Errors from a simple hello program

Errors from a simple hello program

(OP)
Hello

I have been to an online tutorial and wrote in what I saw there for a hello program.  I'm using the windows Emu8086/8088 assembler.

Here is an example of the code:

.386P
Locals
jumps

.Model Flat, StdCall
mb_ok        equ 0  ; value goes to 0
hWnd         equ 0  ; Windows handle
lpText       equ offset text  ; Sets pointer to text
lpCaption    equ offset caption  ; Sets pointer to
                                 ; caption

; Declaration of API functions

extrn    ExitProcess  :PROC   ; Procedure to shut down
extrn    MessageBoxA  :PROC   ; Procedure to show
                              ; message box

; Data begins here

.Data
text    db "Windows 32 bit power!!, 13, 10
; First row of text with wordwrap
        db "Reimport ini file to window.",0
; Second row of text, terminated with 0

caption    db "Runs in the GUI Subsystem", 0
; Caption string, 0-terminated

; Code starts here

.Code
Main:

    push mb_ok
    push lpCaption
    push lpText
    push hWnd
    call MessageBoxA
    CALL ExitProcess

END MAIN


Heres what the reasons are for not compiling:

(2) Unknown command: .386P
or not enough parameters.
(3) Unknown command: Locals
or not enough parameters.
(4) Unknown command: jumps
or not enough parameters.
(6) Unknown command: .Model Flat, StdCall
or not enough parameters.
(15) Unknown command: extrn    ExitProcess  :PROC
or not enough parameters.
(16) Unknown command: extrn    MessageBoxA  :PROC
or not enough parameters.
(21) Unknown command: .Data
or not enough parameters.
(32) Unknown command: .Code
or not enough parameters.
(35) Not supported: PUSH  0  ; value goes to 0
(36) Not supported: PUSH  offset caption  ; Sets pointer to
(37) Not supported: PUSH  offset text  ; Sets pointer to text
(38) Not supported: PUSH  0  ; Windows handle
(39) Not supported: CALL  MessageBoxA
(40) Not supported: CALL  ExitProcess


If anyone knows what is happening please let me know.  
Thanks for your time.

RJ

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

hi,

emu8086 looks like it doesnt support 386 and greater hence "emu8086". maybe you could find another assembler. NASM, TASM etc are good "FREE" assemblers.

.8086 directive is like the opposite to .386p

maybe emu8086 is stuck in this mode.

but first check to see if "IDEAL MODE" has been enabled. Ideal mode make the assembler directives much easier and free to use and it looks like some of your directive require this.

example:
.code ;is ideal mode for:-

code segment "code" uses32
assume cs:code,ds:code,es:code,fs:code,gs:code
{your program here}
code ends
end

One thing I always notice about tutorials and examples is that to get them to work they always end up different. It is probably due to the author was using a different assembler and although assembly code is pretty much the same all assemblers differ.

I would read the emu manual or help file and it will explain how the directives are used.

"People who have nothing to say, say it too loud and have little knowledge. It's the quiet ones you need to worry about!"

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

(OP)
Hi straiph

Just went to a nasm site.  I'm not sure what to download?  There are sources, binaries, and other packages.

According to the instructions this 8086 emu uses MASAM syntax and appears to be compatible with a 386, I recall something about 286's wouldn't be supported or anything under it will not support when I was at their site.  The only options is for changing font and text appearence and no changes for the envirnoment itself.  The program looks interesting though.  It can save in exe, com, bin, etc and has a hex editor along with it.  As a newbie I am not clear on how to use these tools but I assume they are great tools to have

I had downloaded MASM and I get errors when compiling this same source file, the dos box opens up and something about a resource file couldn't be opened?  I don't know if this resource file has to be written by hand or if the program writes this file on it's own?  

I'm only doing a hello program, lol.  
Well, I'll keep working on it.  I like being challenged with computer things, keeps my mind occupied and me out of trouble.

Thanks.

RJ

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

The following is a code snipet from an example program.
it didnt work at first (assemble under TASM) because I had to change a push & pop command. i actually dont know if it works but it gave me enough information to complete the task at hand.
the best way to learn is by looking at examples, reading manuals and lots and lots and lots and lots of patience.
there are a few manuals in the FAQ under technical references. Manual 2 gives full opcode usage etc.
i dont know about the resource file error.
the downloads you have installed must have come with some examples.

;       Flat Real/Real Big mode (v1.2)

code    segment public

        assume  cs:code

        public  FLAT_install, FLAT_destall

FLAT_install    proc                    ; Installs FLAT_tsr
        
        pushf                           ; Check for NT-flat (only on 386+)
        pushf
        pop     ax
        xor     ah,40h
        push    ax
        popf
        pushf
        pop     bx
        popf
        cmp     ah,bh
        jne     no_NT
.386p                                   ; SMSW is a priviledged instruction(?)
        smsw    ax                      ; Check for real mode
.386
        test    al,1
        jnz     short V86
        pushf                           ; Save flags & DS register
        push    ds
        cli
        xor     eax,eax                 ; Get IRQ5 vector & Set FLAT_tsr
        mov     ds,ax
        mov     ebx,ds:[34h]
        mov     cs:old_IRQ5,ebx
        mov     word ptr ds:[34h],offset FLAT_tsr
        mov     ax,cs
        mov     ds:[36h],ax
        shl     eax,4                   ; Build Global Descriptor Table
        add     dword ptr cs:GDT[2],eax
        pop     ds                      ; Restore DS register & flags
        popf
        ret

no_NT:  mov     ah,09h                  ; Write message
        mov     dx,offset no_NT_msg
        push    cs
        pop     ds
        int     21h
        mov     ax,4C01h                ; Terminate with error code 1
        int     21h

no_NT_msg       db      'This program requires at least an i386sx!',10,'$'

V86:    mov     ah,09h                  ; Write message
        mov     dx,offset V86_msg
        push    cs
        pop     ds
        int     21h
        mov     ax,4C02h                ; Terminate with error code 2
        int     21h

V86_msg         db      'Cannot run in a virtual environment!',10,'$'

FLAT_install    endp

FLAT_destall    proc                    ; Destalls FLAT_tsr

        push    ds                      ; Save DS register
        xor     ax,ax                   ; Restore old IRQ5 vector
        mov     ds,ax
        mov     eax,cs:old_IRQ5
        mov     ds:[34h],eax
        pop     ds                      ; Restore DS register
        ret

FLAT_destall    endp

        align   8
GDT             dw      15              ; Limit (16 bytes)
                dw      offset GDT,0    ; Offset within current segment...
                dw      ?               ; Unused

FLAT_desc       dw      0ffffh          ; Limit (bit 0..15)
                db      ?,?,?           ; Base (bit 0..23)
                db      92h             ; Access rights
                db      0cfh            ; Page granularity + Limit(16..19)
                db      ?               ; Base (bit 24..31)

FLAT_sel        equ     FLAT_desc - GDT


old_IRQ5        dd      0
last_Exc_13     dd      0
IRQ5_flag       db      0

FLAT_tsr proc

        test    cs:IRQ5_flag,1          ; Exception within IRQ5 handler?
        jnz     short Exc_13
        push    ax                      ; Ask PIC if IRQ5 is 'IN-SERVICE'
        mov     al,0Bh
        out     20h,al
        jmp     $+2
        in      al,20h
        test    al,20h
        pop     ax
        jz      short Exc_13

IRQ5:   mov     cs:IRQ5_flag,1          ; Call old IRQ5 handler
        pushf
        call    dword ptr cs:old_IRQ5
        mov     cs:IRQ5_flag,0
        iret

Exc_13: push    eax                     ; Save accumulator

        mov     eax,ss:esp[4]           ; Get address of SOE
        cmp     eax,cs:last_Exc_13      ; Same as last time?
        je      short SOE
        mov     cs:last_Exc_13,eax
.386p
        lgdt    qword ptr cs:GDT        ; Load GDT Register
        
        push    gs fs es ds bx          ; Save registers

        mov     eax,CR0
        or      al,1                    ; Enter Protected mode
        mov     CR0,eax

        jmp     $+2                     ; Flush instruction decode queue
        
        mov     bx,FLAT_sel             ; Load 4Gb limits
        mov     ds,bx
        mov     es,bx
        mov     fs,bx
        mov     gs,bx

        and     al,not 1                ; Back to Real mode
        mov     CR0,eax
.386        
        pop     bx ds es fs gs          ; Restore registers
        pop     eax                     ; Restore accumulator
        iret                            ; Done

SOE:    call    FLAT_destall            ; Remove FLAT_tsr
        mov     ah,0fh                  ; Clear screen
        int     10h
        mov     ah,00h
        int     10h
        mov     ah,09h                  ; Write message
        mov     dx,offset SOE_msg
        push    cs
        pop     ds
        int     21h
        mov     ax,4C0Dh                ; Terminate with error code 13
        int     21h

SOE_msg         db      'Segment Overrun Exception!',10,'$'

FLAT_tsr endp

code    ends
        end

"People who have nothing to say, say it too loud and have little knowledge. It's the quiet ones you need to worry about!"

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

(OP)
This file produced 119 errors(unknown commands) in Emu 8086

Masm only complained about missing expressions, three errors

Blasm reported 52 errors, many of them specfying illegal use of certain commands, like mov, jump, etc and errors regarding commands that do not exist?

I will look at the examples that came with the program.  I was hoping to find starting tutorials though.  The examples work and are fine, but the examples get right into it to soon.  Most of the commands I do not know and would like sort of a step by step walk-through with exercises to do.  I need something basic and where I can work from the ground up.  Also it would mean more to me to do things by hand and get that accomplished feeling.

I like being challenged and this is a challenge, especially when these compilers are throwing different results from the same source files from each of the programs.  This is just as bad as web browser compatibilities discerning html diffeently, lol.

I'll look at the examples and keep working on these problems.  

Thanks

RJ
 

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

well, emu8086 is a very basic compiler just for Intel's 8086
microprocessor. What's good about emu8086 that it's a 8086 microprocessor emulator, thus:

it is extremely helpful
for those who just begin to study assembly
language. It compiles the source code
and executes it on emulator step by step.

Visual interface is very easy to work with.
You can watch registers, flags and memory while
your program executes.

Arithmetic & Logical Unit (ALU) shows the
internal work of the central processor
unit (CPU).

Emulator runs programs on a Virtual PC,
this completely blocks your program from accessing
real hardware, such as hard-drives and memory,
since your assembly code runs on a virtual machine,
this makes debugging much easier.

8086 machine code is fully compatible with all next
generations of Intel's micro-processors, including
Pentium II and Pentium 4, I'm sure Pentium 5 will
support 8086 as well. This makes 8086 code very
portable, since it runs both on ancient and on
the modern computer systems. Another advantage
of 8086 instruction set is that it is much smaller,
and thus easier to learn.

search for "emu8086" at http://www.google.com for more info...

RE: Errors from a simple hello program

That's the problem nowadays - different compilers now have different ways of declaring stuff.  NASM, FASM, MASM, TASM are all totally different in the way they expect assembly sources.  It appears that the code you posted is TASM dialect.  MASM will complain a wee bit, but since it's TASM ideal it's only a wee bit.  NASM and FASM are worse - their assumptions are totally different with respect to labels, and converting MASM code to NASM or FASM can be an exercise in patience.

I would suggest that you stick to one assembler that you would expect to use for most of your life, and learn it.  Then learn the other dialects.

"Information has a tendency to be free.  Which means someone will always tell you something you don't want to know."

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