this is a question that is asked often, mostly if you're making a game. now, i'm not claiming i'm an expert on this, but i learned a few things.
One of the main ways to detect multikey input is to make an array like this: kbd(127) the kbd array will hold the status of every key on the keyboard. now, you must capture a key. this is done like this:
keypress = inp(96)
this will tell us which keys are depressed. now, when you press a key it will return a value between 1 and 127 to the variable keypress. if you let go of a key, it will return the value of the key you let go plus 127 (or something like that) so therefore to detect a keypress, you must determine if keypress is actually a keypress.
if keypress < 128 then
kbd(keypress) = 1
else kbd(keypress - 128) = 0
to get rid of the nasty little beeping problem with the pc speakers, insert this code somewhere.
DEF SEG = &H40 POKE &H1A, PEEK(&H1A + 2)
One of the main problems about multiple key input is stickiness: keys will often "stick", meaning that the program continues reading the key as if it is depressed, which is no fun for the user.
There are many multikey programs made in qb, some with a few problems, while some are perfect. some need the num-lock to be turned off, so try turning off your numlock if you want your multikey program to work properly.
I am in no way an expert, just someone trying to help other people. my explanations may suck, but i managed to find many multikey programs on the net. study them!!!
a multikey routine from toshi himself. it tends to stick quite a bit though, but still worth looking through to learn from.
DECLARE SUB numlockoff () '======================================================= 'QBMKEY - Pure QB multiple keyboard press handler 'by Toshihiro Horie (270fps on Athlon 950) 'Public domain, use as you wish. '======================================================= DEFINT A-Z DIM kbd(255), keystate(255) FOR k = 0 TO 255: keystate(k) = -((k AND 128) = 0): NEXT k
'extra precalcs for demo DIM wrapx(-1 TO 320), wrapy(-1 TO 200) wrapx(-1) = 319: FOR k = 0 TO 319: wrapx(k) = k: NEXT: wrapx(320) = 0 wrapy(-1) = 199: FOR k = 0 TO 199: wrapy(k) = k: NEXT: wrapy(200) = 0
numlockoff SCREEN 13 x = 160: y = 100 LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT "QBMKEY - use arrow keys" frame& = 0: t1! = TIMER DO 'clear keyboard buffer every other frame IF frame& AND 1 THEN DEF SEG = &H40: POKE &H1C, PEEK(&H1A): DEF SEG
'Fill multikey state table 'Each key entry indexed by scancode is either a 1 for depressed 'or a 0 for released. k = INP(&H60): kbd(k AND 127) = keystate(k)
'Look up left and right arrow in key state table to 'determine x and y velocity. xv = kbd(77) - kbd(75) yv = kbd(80) - kbd(72)
'update circle position based on effective velocity x = wrapx(x + xv) y = wrapy(y + yv) 'draw circle during vsync WAIT &H3DA, 8 CIRCLE (xold, yold), 4, 0 CIRCLE (x, y), 4, 13 xold = x: yold = y frame& = frame& + 1 LOOP UNTIL kbd(1) 'escape key exits
'Display demo keyboard polling and graphics update speed elapsed! = TIMER - t1! IF elapsed! <> 0 THEN PRINT frame& / elapsed!; "fps" END
DEFSNG A-Z SUB numlockoff 'Set NumLock and other shift keys off '----------------------------------------------------------- REM This is absolutely necessary, since the demo code assumes REM a depressed key will always return a 0 in the lower 7 bits. DEF SEG = &H40: POKE &H17, 0: DEF SEG END SUB
this one if made by josh stribling. although it sticks sometimes, it still works well.
DECLARE SUB SETKEYS () DECLARE SUB CLEARBUF () DECLARE SUB GETKEYS ()
px = 160 py = 100 Do ox = px oy = py GETKEYS 'GET KEYBOARD INPUT
if KB(KBUP) then py = py - 1 end if
if KB(KBDOWN) then py = py + 1 end if
if KB(KBLEFT) then px = px - 1 end if
if KB(KBRIGHT) then px = px + 1 end if
if (px <> ox) or (py <> oy) then 'move the character 'draw the screen... end if
'all your other code here...
Loop Until KB(KBESC) 'END ON ESC End
Sub CLEARBUF() DEF SEG = &H40 POKE &H1A, PEEK(&H1A + 2) End Sub
'This Is the Main Sub that does all the work Sub GETKEYS() K = INP(96) If K Then 'KEY CHANGED If K < 128 Then 'KEY PRESSED KB(K) = True 'SET THE KEY lastk = K 'SET THE LAST KEY PRESSED MARKER Else '....ELSE...LAST KEY RELEASED If K = 170 Then 'NOTE: (SC) 170 IS RELEASE LAST KEY PRESSED KB(lastk) = False 'CLEAR LAST KEY PRESSED Else '...ELSE...OTHER KEY RELEASED KB(K - 128) = False 'CLEAR RELEASED KEY End If End If End If CLEARBUF 'CLEAR REGULAR KEY BUFFER KEY BUFFER (NO BEEPS) End Sub
Sub SETKEYS() 'These are common keys... KBUP = 72 'Up Arrow KBDOWN = 80 'Down Arrow KBLEFT = 75 'Left Arrow KBRIGHT = 77 'right Arrow KBESC = 1 'Esc Key KBLSHIFT = 42 'Left Shift KBRSHIFT = 54 'Right Shift KBCTRL = 29 'Ctrl Key KBSPACE = 57 'Space Bar KBALT = 56 'Alt Key End Sub
This is a very nice multikey routine by Eric Carr. It's small and works very well! comes with a nice example.
'=========================================================================== ' Subject: SIMULTANEOUS KEY DEMO Date: 03-18-96 (13:12) ' Author: Eric Carr Code: QB, QBasic, PDS ' Origin: FidoNet QUIK_BAS Echo Packet: KEYBOARD.ABC '=========================================================================== 'Ok..Here is the sample keyboard routine I promised..I haven't tested it on any 'other computer excpet mine, but it should work for anyone.. This program lets 'you move a box around by pressing the arrow keys..The acual routine in only 4 'lines as i have marked..This program requires a minimum of a 486sx 25mhz if 'not compiled to run fast enough for all the keys to be updated..I also 'reprogrammed the internal timer from 18.2 to 30, so I could time it to 30 fps. 'To see if a key is being currently pressed, the variable KS is used (IF 'KS(75)=1 THEN button is pressed). Instead of ASCII, this uses scan codes, 'which you can look at in the QB help..Hope you can understand it! :)
DEFINT A-Z: DIM B(300): CLS
N& = 39772 'Reprogram the timer to 30hz LB& = N& AND &HFF 'instead of 18.2 (for 30 frames HB& = (N& / 256) AND &HFF 'per second.) OUT &H43, &H3C: OUT &H40, LB&: OUT &H40, HB&
DIM KS(255), SC(255), DU(255) FOR E = 0 TO 127 ' Setup key data table KSC() SC(E) = E: DU(E) = 1 NEXT FOR E = 128 TO 255 SC(E) = E - 128: DU(E) = 0 NEXT
SCREEN 13: COLOR 4 LOCATE 10, 3: PRINT "Keyboard input routine by Eric Carr" COLOR 7: PRINT : COLOR 2 PRINT " Use the arrow keys to move the box." PRINT "Note that you can press two or more keys" PRINT " at once for diagnal movement!" PRINT : COLOR 8: PRINT " Press [Esc] to quit" X = 150: Y = 100: BX = X: BY = Y DEF SEG = 0 POKE (1132), 0 GET (X, Y)-(X + 15, Y + 15), B DO 'main loop T: I$ = INKEY$ ' So the keyb buffer don't get full \routine/ I = INP(&H60) ' Get keyboard scan code from port 60h \lines/ OUT &H61, INP(&H61) OR &H82: OUT &H20, &H20 ' \!!!/ KS(SC(I)) = DU(I) ' This says what keys are pressed \!/
IF PEEK(1132) < 1 THEN GOTO T 'If not enough time was passed goto T POKE (1132), 0 'reset timer again BX = X: BY = Y IF KS(75) = 1 THEN XC = XC - 2: IF XC < -15 THEN XC = -15 IF KS(77) = 1 THEN XC = XC + 2: IF XC > 15 THEN XC = 15 IF KS(72) = 1 THEN YC = YC - 2: IF YC < -15 THEN YC = -15 IF KS(80) = 1 THEN YC = YC + 2: IF YC > 15 THEN YC = 15 IF XC > 0 THEN XC = XC - 1 ELSE IF XC < 0 THEN XC = XC + 1 IF YC > 0 THEN YC = YC - 1 ELSE IF YC < 0 THEN YC = YC + 1 Y = Y + YC: X = X + XC IF X > 300 THEN X = 300 ELSE IF X < 0 THEN X = 0 IF Y > 180 THEN Y = 180 ELSE IF Y < 0 THEN Y = 0 IF X <> BX OR Y <> BY THEN WAIT 936, 8: PUT (BX, BY), B, PSET GET (X, Y)-(X + 15, Y + 15), B: LINE (X, Y)-(X + 15, Y + 15), 9, BF END IF LOOP UNTIL KS(1) = 1 'loop until [Esc] (scan code 1) is pressed
N& = 65535 'Program the timer back to LB& = N& AND &HFF '18.2hz before exiting! HB& = (N& / 256) AND &HFF OUT &H43, &H3C: OUT &H40, LB&: OUT &H40, HB&
OUT &H61, INP(&H61) OR &H82: OUT &H20, &H20 CLEAR 'need to have this if reprograming the timer END 'I think this ends the program. I'm not quite sure.. :)
This one was made by Joe huber jr., but not really. the keyboard routine was from eric carr's keyboard handler.
'=========================================================================== ' Subject: MULTIKEY FUNCTION UPDATE Date: 05-13-97 (14:46) ' Author: Joe Huber, Jr. Code: QB, QBasic, PDS ' Origin: email@example.com Packet: KEYBOARD.ABC '=========================================================================== DECLARE SUB KEYTEST (LOWERLIMIT!, UPPERLIMIT!) DECLARE FUNCTION MULTIKEY (KEYNUM)
'MUTIKEY FUNCTION - LETS YOU TRAP SEVERAL KEYS AT ONCE (BETTER THAN INKEY$!!) ' 'USAGE: ' riable=MULTIKEY(KEYNUM) 'WHERE KEYNUM IS THE KEY YOU WANT TO TRAP ' riable = 1 IF KEY IS DEPRESSED, 0 IF IT ISN'T ' 'CALL KEYTEST(lower,upper) 'Use this to find new keycodes '(unrem below to test)
' CALL KEYTEST(1, 200)
'Gives all keynums between 1 & 200 'If the 0 by the number becomes a 1, then the key with that keycode is 'currently being depressed
RIGHT = MULTIKEY(75) ' GET SOME KEYS' STATUSES LEFT = MULTIKEY(77) UP = MULTIKEY(72) DOWN = MULTIKEY(80) SPACE = MULTIKEY(57) ESC = MULTIKEY(1)
IF ESC = 1 THEN END 'TEMINATE WHEN ESCAPE IS PRESSED
IF TIMELOOP = 100 THEN 'THIS MOVES YOU AROUND IF RIGHT = 1 THEN X = X - 1 IF LEFT = 1 THEN X = X + 1 'THE TIMELOOP RIABLE DELAYS IF UP = 1 THEN Y = Y - 1 'MOVEMENT WITHOUT SLOWING DOWN IF DOWN = 1 THEN Y = Y + 1 'INPUT (WITHOUT IT YOU WOULD GO TIMELOOP = 0 'WAAAAYYY TOO FAST) END IF
IF X >= 80 THEN X = 80 'KEEPS YOU FROM GOING OFF THE SCREEN AND IF X <= 0 THEN X = 1 'MAKING AN ERROR IF Y >= 23 THEN Y = 23 IF Y <= 0 THEN Y = 1
IF SPACE = 1 THEN 'CHANGES YOUTR SHAPE WHEN LOCATE Y, X: PRINT CHR$(94) 'YOU HIT SPACE ELSE LOCATE Y, X: PRINT CHR$(127) END IF
IF XX <> X OR YY <> Y THEN 'UPDATES YOUR POSITION LOCATE YY, XX: PRINT " " LOCATE Y, X: PRINT CHR$(127) END IF
XX = X: YY = Y 'TELLS ME WHERE I WAS LAST
TIMELOOP = TIMELOOP + 1
LOOP 'LOOP (DUH...) :)
'THANX TO Eric Carr FOR FIGURING OUT HOW TO TRAP SEVERAL KEYS AT ONCE 'EVERYTHING ELSE WRITTEN BY ME,
SUB KEYTEST (LOWERLIMIT, UPPERLIMIT)
DO X = 1 Y = 1
FOR I = LOWERLIMIT TO UPPERLIMIT TEST = MULTIKEY(I) LOCATE Y, X PRINT TEST; I
IF Y < 23 THEN Y = Y + 1 ELSE Y = 1 X = X + 7 END IF NEXT I
LOOP WHILE MULTIKEY(1) = 0 END END SUB
FUNCTION MULTIKEY (KEYNUM)
STATIC FIRSTIME, KEYS(), SC(), DU()
IF FIRSTIME = 0 THEN DIM KEYS(255), SC(255), DU(255) FOR E = 0 TO 127 '\ SC(E) = E: DU(E) = 1 '| NEXT '|-ERIC CARR'S CODE--------------------\ FOR E = 128 TO 255 '| | SC(E) = E - 128: DU(E) = 0 '| | NEXT '/ | FIRSTIME = -1 ' | END IF ' | ' | I$ = INKEY$ ' So the keyb buffer don't get full \routine/ \ | I = INP(&H60) ' Get keyboard scan code from port 60h \lines/ |-/ OUT &H61, INP(&H61) OR &H82: OUT &H20, &H20 ' \!!!/ | KEYS(SC(I)) = DU(I) ' This says what keys are pressed \!/ /
MULTIKEY = KEYS(KEYNUM)
Now this one is one of the best keyboard handlers made by my friend sjzero. instead of checking a range, it checks the and operator instead. it's capable of many things. check it out!
'___ ' |he Code Post ' `-' Original Submission ' =============================================================== ' CONTRIBUTOR: Sj Zero ' DESCRIPTION: Simple, yet effective multikey routines ' DATE POSTED: Sat Sep 1 09:39:43 2001 ' ===============================================================
'Completely altered QB multikey Keyboard routines by SJ Zero
'Completely altered QB multikey Keyboard routines by SJ Zero 'Original routines by John Anderson(multikey.bas) 'Look for it on QB45.COM to see the differences.
'Here is the perfect pure QB keyboard handler. I fixed the flaws of 'John Andersons original design, and added a few tricks of my own, 'such as testing the AND instead of a range. 'The code may be uglier now, but it does a lot more than the original did, 'such as letting the numlock be active, and the Shifts be used.
'note: The keyspressed$ routine is basically useless, so I didn't change it. 'To use this code in a game, just use a like like: 'if Keyflag%(1) then print "Hey ma, a useless example!"
'Also notice the change I made to the inkey% meant to clear the keyboard 'buffer. Now it clears the whole buffer on every frame. This may not be the 'fastest solution, but it is the least likely to mess up on a computer with 'a cheap keyboard bios.
'One final thing, this must be checked rather often compared to other keyboard 'routines. If too much time passes between readings, the keys tend to stay 'active, which is not any fun for the user.
DECLARE FUNCTION KEYSPRESSED$ ()
DIM SHARED Keyflag%(0 TO 127) DO
li% = i% i% = INP(&H60) IF i% = 170 OR i% = 54 OR i% = 42 THEN FOR a = 0 TO 127: Keyflag%(a) = 0: NEXT a IF (i% AND 128) THEN Keyflag%(i% XOR 128) = 0 IF (i% AND 128) = 0 THEN Keyflag%(i%) = -1 WHILE INKEY$ <> "": WEND IF i% = 1 THEN END
IF i% <> li% THEN LOCATE 1, 1: PRINT KEYSPRESSED$ END IF IF ext% THEN EXIT DO LOOP END
FUNCTION KEYSPRESSED$ 'A string of all the keys curently being pressed kp$ = "" FOR k% = 0 TO 127 IF Keyflag%(k%) THEN kpa$ = LTRIM$(RTRIM$(STR$(k%))): kl% = LEN(kpa$) kpa$ = "*" + kpa$ kp$ = kp$ + kpa$ END IF NEXT k% kp$ = kp$ + "*" lk% = LEN(kp$) kp$ = kp$ + (SPACE$((40 - lk%))) KEYSPRESSED$ = kp$ END FUNCTION
The alternative is to use an assembler handler, but who wants assembly? ;)
I welcome any complaints, as it'd for sure help me learn. at least there are lost of examples! ;D