Congratulations on getting Windows 95 running - as you say it isn't all that easy. In its day, Windows 95 was a doddle compared to setting up Windows for Workgroups 3.11 on a real MS_DOS 6.22 computer! But there were not the limitations and constraints that VirtualBox imposes on the VM, on a legacy hardware platform. It was then possible to go and add a floppy or Zip drive, a network card or Laplink files via the serial or parallel ports to another PC.
The key to getting files and data in and out is networking, and here's the next difficulty. TCP/IP networks were new to Windows 95, and OSR 2 does not install the TCP/IP stack by default, if I remember correctly.
In those days Novell Netware was the commercial choice of network, or the Microsoft NetBEUI protocol for small workgroups. Not much use today though.
Rather than a long essay here, Google
Windows 95 networking in Virtualbox
for a range of information.
The plan would be to get the TCP/IP protocol installed, and connect to your home network (that gives you internet connectivity), share folders on your Host machine and on the Windows 95 guest virtual machine. That way you should have a means of transferring files.
Today's Windows security will get in the way of seeing files from the Win95 machine, but the other way around should be no problem - i.e. copying to a shared folder on the Win95 VM. The alternative would be FTP - File Transfer Protocol - a way of sending files over internet connections.
Although you could have rudimentary internet connectivity, most of today's webpages would not display on a browser that could run in Win95. Most Of the Web was text-based in 1995. Netscape Navigator V1.0 only appeared in December 1994. Netscape's forerunner, NCSA Mosaic was first released in 1993, so the Internet hardly had much of a presence then. Academic institutions used mostly text-based email and file transfer protocols to communicate in those days.
Remember that CD-ROMs were also new to PCs in 1995, and USB devices were not fully supported on Windows until XP SP2!
VirtualBox also does not support devices such as the soundcards that Windows 95 might have used.
The Virtualbox forums have a load of information and Google is invaluable. Let us know how you get on, especially if you have specific problems.