Yes, using batch sequences, which are available starting with Acrobat 5.
Open the File menu, point to Batch Processing, and click List all Bookmarks. This sequence will create a new PDF document that lists all of the bookmarks in the file. You can then print that new PDF document.
If List all Bookmarks isn't on your Batch Processing submenu, you need to copy that SEQU file from the installation CD into your C:\Program Files\Adobe\Acrobat <version number>\Acrobat\Sequences\ENU folder.